Charlotte Smith and William Godwin

This post has been a long time in coming – it has been a rather busy few weeks! I had a delightful time presenting a paper on Smith’s context in the debate on education in the eighteenth century at the Difficult Women Conference, University of York and discussing my project so far at the IHR’s annual Lightning Talks. After Christmas, I will be producing a post on the former to finally add something about eighteenth-century education to this blog. 

This post is a very brief overview of Smith’s relationship with William Godwin, husband of Mary Wollstonecraft, radical political philosopher and novelist, who wrote Caleb Williams (1794).


 

Charlotte Smith is first recorded in William Godwin’s diary on 2nd May 1797. A dinner at John King’s (Jacob Rey), a radical and money lender, and a number of other diners, the majority of whom are male (Swainson, Hewardine and Cockburne remain so far unidentified in the Godwin Diary database). This perhaps lends further evidence to the way in which Smith saw herself: a professional and, therefore, an equal to the male professionals around her. (She was notoriously difficult with her publishers as can be seen by her monetary demands in letters to Thomas Caddell Sr.)

2nd May 1797
William Godwin’s Diary, http://godwindiary.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/folio/e.203_0017r

Throughout the diary, between this first record and the record of her death in 1806, Smith is mentioned 99 times. Godwin also records reading her novels, such as Desmond (1792) and The Young Philosopher (1798).

After the death of Mary Wollstonecraft, 10th September 1797, only months after their first meeting, Smith wrote to Godwin. In a letter dated 24th October 1797, (suggested to have been written to Smith) Godwin responded warmly that

Your letter gave me great pleasure both for the feelings it expressed, and for the person from whom it came. I had always much esteem for you, and that esteem was strengthened by what I saw of you personally a few months ago. Few things would give me more pleasure than to cultivate your acquaintance, and on that account you must allow me to feel some selfish pleasure from the idea of your spending the winter in London.

Prior to their first meeting, Godwin was already aware of Smith as a writer and recorded reading her novel Desmond in his diary as early as 1793. This letter, perhaps, signals the beginning of their correspondence several months after their first meeting. The rest of the letter is very personal and heart-rending; Godwin talks about his distress at losing Mary, how meeting her changed his views on the state of marriage, and what he will do about ‘the poor children! I am myself totally unfitted to educate them.[…] she was the best qualified in the world!’ From this outpouring of feeling and personal grief to his new acquaintance, we can see this was the beginning of a warm friendship.

This led to further letters and meetings, and even collaboration and support for each other’s literary works. Godwin supported Smith’s only foray into playwriting, What Is She?, attending a performance in Convent Garden on 27th April 1799. Within the next year Smith wrote the Prologue for Godwin’s play: Antonio; A Tragedy in Verse (1800). According to Godwin’s diary, he continued to read her other works, including her earlier French translation, The Romance of Real Life (recorded in Godwin’s diary a decade after Smith’s death).

The year before her death her friends in the Godwin circle were concerned about her health. The celebrated surgeon Anthony Carlisle wrote reassuringly to Godwin that ‘Mrs. Smith is not so ill as you have been taught to believe’ and that ‘Mrs. Smith had been better for two days prior to my visit, she sat up [and] was cheerful’.

ds 1350 carlisle
Anthony Carlisle, Surgeon Extraordinary to the Prince Regent. Portrait by Henry Bone http://britishminiatures2.blogspot.co.uk/2008/09/bone-henry-portrait-of-sir-anthony.html

He also teasingly suggests that ‘Mrs. Smith’s love of Doctors’ may have been halting her recovery (too many cooks spoil the broth, perhaps?) and that ‘she would do better to follow steadily some given plan – the Country Surgeon agreed with me on forming certain rules from which I trust she will derive benefit.’ Mary Jane Godwin, in her note attached to the same letter, is less reassuring: ‘These medical men often mistake. Sir A. C. in our poor Willy’s case said “you may wash him […] constantly with vinegar if you like, but he cannot survive.”‘

Dep.b.214.3-03-1Dep.b.214.3-03-2

Dep.b.214.3-03-3
Letter from Anthony Carlisle to William Godwin, with a note from Mary Jane Godwin (11th Dec 1805) From the Abinger Collection, Bodleian Library http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/1500-1900/abinger/abinger.html

The final mention of Smith in Godwin’s diary records her death on 28th October 1806, a year after Carlisle’s letter. Smith recovered from that bout of illness, as Carlisle suggests she would, but not the next.The record of Smith’s death suggests she was a significant person to Godwin and, as their letters suggest, she was a friend.

Godwin Diary Entry
William Godwin’s Diary,http://godwindiary.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/folio/e.208_0033r

Introducing Charlotte Smith

Introducing Charlotte Smith

Before I launch into the main topic of this post, I thought I should introduce myself: I am Leanne Cane, a PhD student at Northumbria University. I am working on the novels of Charlotte Smith and her engagement in the debate on education. Today is Day 50 since I officially began my PhD – so the project is in its very early stages. The reason I’ve started this blog is to give myself a space to talk informally about Smith’s life and her works, and the era in which she was living; it’s both a space to think and to, hopefully, converse with others about a relatively under-explored and under-discussed novelist. I also hope it will be a resource of information for others interested in Smith, and I am planning to create some digital resources for the blog such as interactive timelines of the novels, education in the period, and Smith’s life.

So who was Charlotte Smith?

Charlotte Smith was a novelist, poet and author of children’s educational books in the late eighteenth century. She was born on 4th May, 1749, and died at age 57 on 28th October, 1806.

Godwin Diary Entry
’28. Tu. […] Mrs. C Smith dies’ William Godwin’s Diary: http://godwindiary.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/folio/e.208_0033r
Smith was the eldest daughter of Nicholas Turner and Anne Towers. She grew up in the family seat: Bignor Park, Sussex. Her mother, Anne, died when Smith was only three-years-old.

Under the guidance of her aunt, she received a largely ‘ornamental’ education consisting of the ‘modern accomplishments’ standard for girls of her station, such as drawing, dancing, and music. She attended a girls’ school in Kensington, and was tutored in art by George Smith. She was noted from an early age to be an avid reader, reading anything she could get her hands on, and she often wrote verses; even later in life, writing poetry was her particular passion.

Aged 15, she married Benjamin Smith (no relation of the artist mentioned above). It was a turbulent and troubled marriage during which the couple spent time in debtor’s jail and Benjamin exiled himself to France to avoid his creditors. During their time in jail, Smith wrote the first edition of Elegiac Sonnets in an attempt to raise money; writing to make money became a theme throughout her life, in the Preface to her novel Desmond she wrote: ‘I am an author by profession.’ After twenty years (and twelve children), Smith separated from her husband, and focused on raising her children and writing.

Between 1784 and 1806, Smith worked on poetry, translations, novels, educational books, a journalistic piece, and a stage play; she produced a total of 23 texts, not counting the various editions of Elegiac Sonnets which she expanded over the period. Writers such as Sir Walter Scott, the novelist, and William Wordsworth noted her influence and talent.

Elegiac_Sonnets_title_page.jpg

Sadly, Smith, like many other women writers, was written out of history and the literary canon during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; considered unimportant, despite their influence, beside such eighteenth-century and Romantic writers as Samuel Richardson, Samuel Johnson, William Wordsworth, and Lord Byron. Smith in recent decades, however, has begun to come to the fore again: her works are being re-published; her poems can be found in anthologies; she is being taught on undergraduate and postgraduate literature courses. The main focus so far has been her poetry and use of the sonnet form, due to its influence on Romantic poetry in the period, but her novels and other works are also sparking interest again.